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Investigating the occurrence of the Yangtze Giant Softshell Turtle (Rafetus swinhoei) in Madushan Reservoir of Yunnan Province, China. Report to Wildlife Conservation Society
A Population and Nesting Survey of Reintroduced Chinese Alligators at Dongtan Wetland Park, Shanghai, China
The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is considered the most critically endangered crocodilian in the world (Xing 2010). Fewer than 150 Chinese alligators survive in the wild, and these occur in small populations at widely scattered sites; the largest population at any particular site numbers no more than 20 individuals and contains <10 adults (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 1999; Thorbjarnarson et al. 2002; Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010). Sites occupied by wild Chinese alligators are typically patches of marginal habitat embedded within agricultural landscapes. Importantly, the agricultural lands surrounding occupied sites effectively block the dispersal of alligators, thereby precluding genetic exchange between wild populations (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010). Furthermore, the limited areal extent of most occupied habitats prevents any significant increase in the size of wild populations (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010). In contrast to the tenuous conservation status of wild populations, ex-situ propagation has proven remarkably successful and thousands of alligators (> 14,000 in 2015; Professor Lu Shunqing, unpubl. data) are now maintained at two government operated conservation-breeding centers in China (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010; Platt 2012). An action plan prepared in 2001 by Chinese and international scientists strongly recommended that new wild populations be established by releasing captive-bred and head-started A. sinensis into suitable, but unoccupied habitat (Jiang et al. 2006). To this end, a trial release of six adult Chinese alligators was conducted at Dongtan Wetland Park (DWP) on Chongming Island in June 2007 (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010). Chongming Island is a large alluvial island (1267 km2) at the mouth of the Yangtze River near Shanghai, and within the known historic distribution of A. sinensis (Platt 2012). DWP is a popular outdoor recreation area and consists of 860 ha of freshwater marsh dominated by Phragmites australis. These marshlands host an abundance of potential prey such as aquatic insects, mollusks, fish, snails, crustaceans (including the invasive Procambarus clarki), snakes, and frogs, and as such is considered excellent alligator habitat (Thorbjarnarson and Wang 2010; Lu et al. 2014). Thorbjarnarson and Wang (2010) suggested DWP could ultimately support as many as 300 adult A. sinensis and considered it the most important site for alligator conservation in China.
Brown Bear-proof fence experiment in Changtang grassland, Tibetan Plateau
Human-wildlife conflict has become a popular topic within China, especially in Western China. Between 2000 and 2009, there was reported damage by wildlife, including brown bears, in 20 provinces in China. Most cases occurred in remote and poor areas, such as the Changtang Grassland in the western part of the Tibetan Plateau. The grassland is mostly within the Tibetan Autonomous Region (TAR).
Ecological Research of Wild Tigers
The tiger occupies the top position of the food chain in ecosystem,SO the key species in nature conservation and of important ecological and scientific value.The present status of the tiger showed that its distribution area and population number decreased significantly,thus become one of the most threatened large cats.
Population status and dynamic trends of Amur tigers prey in Eastern Wandashan Mountain,Heilongjiang Province
Ungulate depletion is a major factor driving the current decline of wild Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica. To conserve this globally threatened species,we should monitor their prey densities timely. It is often desirable to estimate absolute densities of prey population across large areas for effective tiger conservation and management. However, determining absolute density is complex and often controversial. Ungulate are notoriously hard to completely or partially survey using direct counts in Northeast China for rare sightings,poor visibility in dense forests,manpower and budget limit and surveyor must rely on indirect snow signs.
Discussion on Monitoring Method of Wild Amur tiger
"Amur tiger is one of the most endangered species in the world. The suitable monitoring method for Amur tiger is the precondition of wild Amur tiger population recovery. Four different monitoring methods were introduced and analyzed in this article, with the hope this can be helpful to establish asnitable tiger monitoring scheme in China at current condition."
Migratory and calving behavior of Tibetan antelope population
A migratory population of female Tibetan antelope or chiru was studied on its calving ground in the western Kunlun Mountains, Xinjiang in June - July 2005. It was estimated that 4000-4500 females were in the 1200km2 calving area but most births were concentrated in 350km2. The habitat at 4500-5000m in elevation had vegetation coverage of less than 5%, principally the dwarf shrub Ceratoides compacta. Young were born 18 June - 7 July with a peak 24 June- 3 July. Only about 40% of adult females had young, a low fecundity possibly the result of heavy winter snows leading to poor physical condition. Wolf, red fox, and birds of prey killed a few chiru but predators were scarce; most mortality was unrelated to predation. Females arrived at the calving grounds in late May and early June from the west of Tibet, and by early July started their return migration. It remains unclear why chiru migrate to that site.Analysis of chiru food plants showed no marked difference in nutritive values at this season between the calving grounds and the southern range. Escape from predators, parasitic insects, and people with their livestock may all have a role Based on the study, we suggest that the main calving ground requires strict protection from disturbance, and a large reserve in the region needs to be established.
Review Historic distribution and recent loss of tigers in China
Historical records can provide important evidence of changes in distributions of wildlife species. Here we discuss the distribution of the tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) over the past 2000 years in China based on 2635 historical records. We also compare tiger distributions outlined in these records with ecosystem type maps. Throughout this time period, tigers maintained a broad distribution across 7 biomes (from forests to deserts). However, in recent decades the range has been significantly condensed. Today, only 2 populations remain, neither of which is independently viable. Tigers have completely disappeared from the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of central China, a region that was traditionally their most important biome in China. The continued presence of wild tigers in China is highly dependent on significant conservation measures.
Tibetan antelope the witness of the ecological changes of the Tibetan Plateau
Livestock depredation by Amur tigers in Hunchun Nature Reserve, Jilin, China
The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris ahaica)is endangered in China.Since establishment of the Hunchun Nature Reserve adjacent to Russia and DPR Korea in Jilin Province,in December 2001,the tiger population in this region seems to have increased.Reports of livestock losses are increasing in the reserve.To reduce human-tiger conflicts, we carried out an in-depth analysis of livestock depredation by tigers, based on tiger monitoring data collected from December 2001 to 2007.There were 126 cases in which Amur tigers attacked 204 cattle, horses and dogs between December 2002 and 2007.From 2002 to 2007, livestock losses generally increased, with major increases in 2007.Livestock depredation mainly occurred between April and September.Results suggest no preference for specific domestic animals.Tigers rarely attacked livestock that were less than 1 km from a village, and human disturbance affected utilization of livestock and tiger behavior associated with moving carcasses.An estimated 16079 kg livestock meat was eaten by tigers, amounting to $76084 in losses.Attacks occurred more often on southern and eastern aspects, lower altitudes, gentler slopes, greater canopy density, closer to villages and rivers, and farther from roads.Removal of snares in the forest and elimination of new snares is vital to increase ungulate populations, so as to reduce tiger dependence on livestock. Better livestock husbandry techniques and reduction of livestock within Hunchun Reserve can greatly reduce the rate of depredation by tigers.Avoiding disturbance of sites where tigers have already made kills is also likely to reduce rate of killing in some extent.
The Amur tiger, can they go home
Discussion on Protection to Amlir Tiger From the Aspect of Human Action
Amur tiger is one of the most endangered species in the word. Currently, there are 431-529 wild Amur tigers living in Russia and less than 20 surviving in China. The recent monitoring data indicated that the number of Amur tiger in China is maintained by the transient individual from Russia. In this urgent conservation condition, the continuous efforts of our government should be made to recover our wild Amur tiger population in China. The Amur tiger conservation is disscussed in this article from the aspect of how to normalize the human action in forest.
Status of Golden-headed Box Turtle(Cuora aurocapitata) And its Conservation
The survival status of golden-headed box turtle, a very rare and endangered species, was surveyed form January to July 2007. Its habitat was restricted in an area of not more than 1.5 km2 in Jing and Yi counties of Anhui Provonce, with a population of less than 200 individuals. Now, in captivity were less than 200 individuals in China and 200-300 in Europe, America and Japan, owned mostly by private collectors. In view of this very endangered state of this turtle, strategis for its conservation: ranking of its vulnerabilitu, construction of its nature resreve, repduction in wild and captive breeding, propagands of its protection,management measures, were discussed.
Distribution, status, and conservation of wild yak Bos grunniens
Wild yaks Bos grunniens survive only on the Tibetan Plateau where they have declined greatly in range and numbers during the past century because of excessive hunting. Wildlife surveys on the Plateau between 1984 and 1994 revealed that yaks persist in several small populations and in one large tract of alpine steppe and alpine desert, mostly above 4500 m in elevation, which extends over about 400,000 km2 primarily in the Tibet Autonomous Region. The Chang Tang Reserve, 284,000 km2 in size, covers a substantial part of this area and contains an estimated 7000–7500 yaks, a third of these in two relatively small areas. The number of wild yaks probably totals around 15,000. Meat hunting, encroachment by pastoralists into the last strongholds, and hybridization between domestic and wild yaks are among the dangers confronting the animals. Only large protected tracts of wilderness as in the northern Chang Tang Reserve can provide wild yaks with a future.
Daytime Budget of Semi-free Ranging Saiga Antelopes ( Saiga tatarica) in Two Major Periods of Reproduction
Data on daytime budget of saiga antelopes ( Saiga tatarica) were collected in a colony of multifemale, one-male unit in a 30 ha enclosure in Wuwei, Gansu Province. The state-behaviors were scanned and instantaneous sampled with 5-min intervals in two seasons —the mating season [ P1 , December 2000, including pre-mating (a), mating(b) and post-mating (c) periods], and the lactation (P2 , May-July, 2001) . Data processing showed: ①After Plb females increased their time in feeding , and reduced that in lying-out; from P1a to P1c, time in standing successively reduced; within 2 weeks after giving birth, the females separated from the major group, and returned with lambs in the 3rd week. ②The adult male spent more time in moving in P1a than that in P1b, and increased time in lying 2 out after P1b. ③Sex difference of time budget , especially the feeding and lying-out time, appeared in and after P1b, and the difference could be traced to the differentiation of parental investments—females were the only investors to the off spring since pregnancy. These results implied that supplementary food should increase in the two seasons for the animals better reproduction.
WCS CHINA GÇô Hunchun NTFP Analysis
The following document has been created by a group of students working towards their Master’s of Business Administration from the Hass Business School at the University of California, Berkeley. The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) hired us to conduct a feasibility study on Hunchun non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The objective was to analyze these NTFPs to apply to a Tiger Friendly Certification (TFC) program to mitigate or alleviate the detrimental activities associated with villagers living in the Hunchun forest reserve such as poaching, harvesting, and cattle raising. Ultimately, through the NTFP business medium, WCS hopes to promote tiger and forest conservation by providing villagers financial incentives to change current living habits.
Human-Tiger Conflict Resolution Framework
While the focus of Haas-WCS project is to develop a viable business model around one or more NTFPs1, the Haas International development team believes doing so addresses only one of the many issues derived human-tiger conflict in Hunchun. So while the “WCS China – Hunchun NTFP Analysis” report dives into developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model for NTFP, this “report attempts to summarizes most if not all the conflict between Humans and their environment.
Insights on Community-Based Conservation Planning in Amur Tiger Habitat
China’s rate of economic development has skyrocketed in the last few years. Habitat loss due to development is one the greatest global threats to species. Already, an estimated 40% of China’s ecosystems have been destroyed, and 15-20% of its species are highly threatened1. Bordered by the steppes of Mongolia, the East China Sea, the jagged Himalayas and the lush tropics of southeast Asia, China encompasses so many ecosystems that it is easily one of the most biodiverse regions of the world. China is home to 450 mammal species, 1200 bird species, 340 reptile species and 25,000 insect species – it may be argued that the most charismatic of these is the Amur tiger (Pathera tigris altaica), the largest of the tiger subspecies.
Who is going to end the helpless protection of species
The Last Refuge for Wild Animals.pdf
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